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Shannon D. Ringenbach

Associate Professor, Nutrition and Health Promotion


 (602) 496-6786


  • PhD - Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 1998
    Specializing in motor control, motor development and motor learning
  • MSc - McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, 1993
    Human Biodynamics specializling in motor control and motor learning
  • BPe - McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, 1991

Research Interests

The Sensorimotor Development Research Lab is currently investigating Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) and its effects on motor, cognitive, physical and mental health in a variety of neurological populations (e.g., Down syndrome, ADHD, ASD, Stroke, etc.).

Research Publications

  1. Chen, C-C. & Ringenbach, S. D. R. (in press). The Association between Physical Activity and Sleep Disorders in Adolescents and Young Adults in Down Syndrome: A Questionnaire Study. Journal of Sleep Disorders: Treatment and Care
  2. Ringenbach, SDR, DHolzapfel SD, Mulvey, GM, UGJimenez, A, UGBenson, A., & Richter, M. The effects of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) and voluntary cycling on reaction time and measures of executive function in adolescents with Down syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. (Impact factor: 2.41)
  3. DChen,C-C., & Ringenbach, S. D. R. (2016). Dose-response relationship between intensity of exercise and cognitive performance in individuals with Down syndrome: A preliminary study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60(6), 606-614..
  4. Ringenbach, S.D.R., DHolzapfel, S.D., Mulvey, G.M., UGJimenez, A., UGBenson, A., & DBirchfield, N. (in press).  The effects of assisted cycling therapy (ACT) on reaction time, executive function and language fluency in adolescents with Down syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities.
  5. DChen, C-C., & Ringenbach, S.D.R. (in press). A Pilot study of Test–Retest reliability of the Purdue pegboard test in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome.  Journal of Motor Learning and Development.
  6. DChen, C.-C.(JJ), UGKelsey, A., DMulvey, G.M., & Ringenbach, S.D.R. (in press). Examining the Davidson's Model via an exercise variable in individuals with intellectual disabilities, International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 62(1), 70-75.
  7. Ringenbach, S. D. R., UGLichtsinn, K. C. & DHolzapfel, S. D. (2015). Assisted cycle therapy (ACT) improves inhibition in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 40(4), 376-387.
  8. DChen, C-C, & Ringenbach S.D.R. (in press). The effect of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on cognitive control in adults with Down syndrome.  Mental Health and Physical Activity.
  9. DChen, C.-C., Ringenbach, S. D. R., UGBiwer, A., UGRiekena, A. (2015). Cerebral lateralization of the EEG during perceptual-motor integration in young adults with Down syndrome.  Brazilian Journal of Motor Control, 9(1), 1-7.
  10. DHolazpfel, S.D., Ringenbach, S.D.R., Mulvey, G.M., UGSandoval-Menendez, A.M., UGCook, M.R., UGGanger, R.O., & UGBennett, K. (2015).  Improvements in manual dexterity relate to improvements in cognitive planning after assisted cycling therapy (ACT) in adolescents with Down syndrome.  Research in Developmental Disabilities, 45-46, 261-270.
  11. DChen, C-C., Crews, D., UGMundt, S., Ringenbach, S.D.R. (2015). Effects of equine-assisted activity on frontal EEG asymmetry in young children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot study. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 61(1), 56-59. 
  12. DChen, C.-C., Ringenbach, SDR, Crews, D, Kulinna, PH, and Amazeen, EL (2015), The association between a single bout of moderate physical activity and executive function in young adults with Down syndrome: a preliminary study. J Intellect Disabil Res, 59, 589–598. doi: 10.1111/jir.12163.
  13. Ringenbach, S. D. R., UGZimmerman, K., DChen, C.C., DMulvey, G. M., & DHolzapfel, S. D. Weeks, D. J., & Thaut, H. H. (2014).  Adults with Down syndrome performed repetitive movements fast with continuous music cues.  Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 2(3), 47-54.* Excellence in Research Award
  14. DChen, C-C., & Ringenbach, S.D.R (2014). The Association between sleep disorders and fine manual dexterity in young adults with Down syndrome. Journal of Sleep Disorders: Treatment and Care, 3(2), 1-4. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2325-9639.1000132
  15. Ringenbach, S. D. R., UGAlbert, A. R., DChen,J.J., Alberts, J. L. (2014).  Acute bouts of assisted cycling improves cognitive and upper extremity movement functions in adolescents with Down syndrome.  Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 52(5), 124-135.
  16. DChen, C-C., Ringenbach, S.D.R, & UGSnow, M. (2014). Treadmill walking effects on grip strength in young men with Down syndrome. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(2), 288-293.
  17. DChen CC, Ringenbach SD, UGAlbert AR. (2014). Assisted cycling exercise improves fine manual dexterity in persons with Down syndrome.  Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities. 27(3), 264-272.
  18. DChen, C-C (JJ) , Ringenbach, S.D.R., UGAlbert, A., & MSemken, K. (2014). Fine motor control is related to cognitive control in adolescents with Down syndrome. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 61(1), 6-15.
  19. Ringenbach, S. D. R., MBonertz, C., & Maraj, B. K. V. (2014).  Relatedness of auditory instructions is important for motor performance in persons with Down syndrome.  Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 20(1), 84-91.
  20. DChen, C-C., Ringenbach, S.D.R., UGSnow, M., & UGHunt, L.M. (2013). Validity of a pictorial rate of perceived exertion scale for monitoring exercise intensity in young adults with Down syndrome. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 59(1), 1-10.
  21. Ringenbach, S. D. R., DChen, C. C., DMulvey, G. M., & DJung, M. L. (2012). Unimanual and bimanual continuous movements benefit from visual instructions in persons with Down syndrome.  Journal of Motor Behavior, 44(4), 233-239.
  22. DMulvey, G. M., Ringenbach, S. D. R., & MJung, M. (2011).  Reversal of handedness effects on bimanual coordination in adults with Down syndrome.  Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 55(10), 998-1007.
  23. Ringenbach, S. D. R., Van Gemmert, A. W. A., Shill, H. A. & Stelmach, G. E.  (2011). Unimanual and bimanual drawing are performed accurately using auditory instructions in Parkinson’s disease patients.  Human Movement Science, 30(4), 770-782.
  24. DB. Wipfli, D. Landers, C. Nagoshi, & S. D. Ringenbach (2011).  An Examination of Serotonin and Psychological Variables in the Relationship Between Exercise and Mental Health.  Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 21(3), 474-481.

Research Activity

  • Ringenbach,Shannon Dora*Mcclain,Darya Denise. Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) for Adolescents with Down Syndrome. HHS-NIH-NICHD(7/9/2012 - 6/30/2015).
  • Ringenbach,Shannon Dora*. The Effect of Music on Motor Cognitive and Affect Functions for People with Down Syndrome in Music-Based Exercise. (5/1/2011 - 11/30/2012).
  • Ringenbach,Shannon Dora*. Music & Movement in Down Syndrome: Examination of intra and interhemispheric .....with Down Syndrome. JEROME LEGEUNE FDN(6/30/2009 - 6/29/2011).
  • Ringenbach,Shannon Dora*. Music and Movement in Persons with Down Syndrome. JEROME LEGEUNE FDN(7/1/2007 - 8/31/2009).
  • Ringenbach,Shannon Dora*. Perceptual-Motor Tasks in Adults with Down Syndrome. HHS-NIH-NICHD(4/1/2005 - 9/30/2007).
  • Ringenbach,Shannon Dora*. PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR BEHAVIOR IN DOWN SYNDROME. MCMASTER UNIVERSITY(1/1/1999 - 6/30/2002).